×
当前位置: 首页 > 雅思频道 > 雅思写作 >

剖析雅思大作文之环境类话题

朗阁海外考试研究中心唐娜星时间:2015-12-17 10:31

摘要:如何能在考场上十分顺畅地完成一篇环境类话题的作文这也许是目前绝大多数考生碰到的一个问题。本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家将从常考题目和备考要点这两个方面给大家全面展示环境类话题的复习重点。

  不知各位考生是否还记得2015.09.26和2015.10.10这两场雅思考试的大作文考了什么吗?按照理论分析,如此近的两场考试大作文内容应该不会涉及到相同的话题,或者说同样话题的可能性出现的概率会比较低一点,但是事实证明这种推断是错误的。首先我们一起来还原一下这两场考试的题目分别是什么:

  2015.09.26

  In many countries, there is no enough recycling of waste materials (e.g. paper, glass, cans)。 What are the reasons and solutions?

  2015.10.10

  Some people think governments should focus on reducing environmental pollution and housing problems to help prevent illness and disease. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  读完这两道题目,可能很多考生还是无法理解这2道题目的共同点在哪里。事实上,2015.09.26考察的是环保方式(关于回收),而2015.10.10考察的是环境类中的环境问题与疾病间的关系。所以从宏观上来讲,都是环保类的相关题目,只是前者关于环保考得稍微少了一些,可能没有引起大家的注意。朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家认为,既然2场如此近的考试都有涉及到环境类的相关内容,足以证明这个话题已经引起了考官的绝对重视。后期各位考生在备考期间,环保类话题可以作为一个重点去好好准备。

  如何能在考场上十分顺畅地完成一篇环境类话题的作文这也许是目前绝大多数考生碰到的一个问题。本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家将从常考题目和备考要点这两个方面给大家全面展示环境类话题的复习重点。

  一、常考话题

  一般来讲,环保类话题分为三种类型,分别为环境类,动物类及资源类。而这三种类型的题目都有一些母题。考生在准备期间就可以按照这些母题来准备,后面任何题目内容的转变都是万变不离其宗的。

  1. 环境类

  (1) Some people think that environmental problems are too big for individuals to solve. Only governments and large companies can make a difference. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(关于谁为环境保护负责)

  (2) Some people believe that air travel should be restricted because it causes serious pollution and will use up the world’s resources. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(交通工具的利弊比较)

  2. 动物类

  (1) Some people think it is necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it is cruel to do that. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.(关于是否要用动物做实验的讨论)

  (2) Many animal species in the world is becoming extinct. Some people say countries and other individuals should protect these animals from dying out, while others say we should concentrate more on problems of human beings. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.(关于是否要保护濒危动物的讨论)

  3. 资源类

  (1) Many countries use fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) as the main source of energy. However, in some countries the use of alternative sources of energy such as wind energy and solar energy are encouraged. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(关于化石燃料和新能源的对比)

  二、备考建议

  朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家认为,在明确了上述常出考题的情况下,就要着手开始准备了。一般情况,我们建议按照词汇,背景知识和段落书写这三个方面去准备。而其中,词汇和背景知识是可以合在一起准备的,多读国外的一些报刊,杂志或新闻都不乏是一种比较有效的积累知识的方式。下面给大家提供到的一些段落就来自于学术网站,其中与环境相关的一些词汇已经有重点地为大家标出,考生可以重点记忆。

  1. 背景知识的拓展

  (1)国际问题

  一些自然因素(natural fact)例如海洋和风并不会限制在(be confined to)特定的国境中(national boundaries),因此一个国家的污染往往会对其他国家的环境产生严重的影响(have serious environmental consequences)。这些问题包括石油泄漏(oil spills)和沙尘暴(dust storms)等等。

  例如2005年,中国东北地区(northeastern China)的一个化工厂(chemical plant)爆炸(explode),使得大量有毒物质泄漏并进入松花江(spill toxins into the Songhua River),进而污染了处于松花江下游地区(downstream from the spill)一些俄罗斯城市的饮用水(drinking water)。

  (2)国际所做的一些事情来保护环境

  为应对全球气候变暖(global warming),不少国家要求对发电厂(power plants)的碳污染水平(carbon pollution levels)加以限制,因为发电厂排放的温室气体(greenhouse gas emissions)就能占总排放量的三分之一。为了降低碳污染的水平,除了要提高以烧煤发电的工厂(coal-fired power plants)的效率外(more efficient),还可以鼓励多使用例如风能和太阳能(wind and solar power)等可再生能源(renewable sources of energy),并建造核能发电厂(nuclear power plants)来降低对化石燃料(fossil fuels)的依赖。

  另外,各国政府还鼓励群众选择环境友好的生活方式(make eco-friendly lifestyle choices),减少、再使用和循环利用废料(reduce, reuse and recycle waste),培养(cultivate)人们的环保意识。

  (3)如何保护濒危动物

  林业和栖息地的保护(Forestry and habitat protection),人工繁殖(captive breeding),建立(setting up)更多的自然保护区(nature reserves)和公园,拒绝使用濒危动物或稀有动物生产的产品(products)(皮,鳄鱼皮,象牙,等等)(Fur, Crocodile skin, Ivory, etc.)。政府可以为国际贸易(international trade)制定动物保护的法律法规(make animal protection laws and regulations)。科学家们正建立可以保存(preserve)动物遗传物质(genetic material)的基因库(gene banks)。

  (4)新能源的使用情况

  Ø 水力发电(Hydroelectric power)是美国目前最大的可再生能源(producer of renewable power)。2010年,水力发电占美国全国用电总量(nation‘s total electricity)的6.2%,美国可再生能源总量(total renewable power)的60.2%。继中国,加拿大,巴西后,美国是世界第四大水力发电生产国(fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity)。

  Ø 中国现在是世界上最大的太阳能热水器市场(market for solar hot water),占全球三分之二的比例(two-thirds of global capacity)。超过10%的中国家庭(Chinese households)依靠1.6亿多平方米的集热总面积(as total collector area)的太阳能加热水(heat their water)。

  2. 段落书写

  朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家认为,在有了一定的素材积累下,考生可以根据关键词或一些观点尝试段落的书写,一方面是让自己能把词汇和观点更好地记忆住,另外也可以加强自己的写作速度。下面的几个段落是呈现给考生的关于环保类常考的6道题的一些段落展示。

  (1) 关于谁为环境保护负责

  参考段落展示:(摘自与Cambridge 8考官范文)

  Ø I think to tackle(解决) the problem of pollution, cleaner fuels need to be developed. The technology is already available to produce electric cars that would be both quieter and cleaner to use. Persuading(劝说)manufacturers(制造商) and travelers to adopt this new technology would be a more effective strategy for improving air quality.

  段落大意:为了有效地解决污染问题,清洁能源应该被研发。电瓶车就安静又清洁。劝说汽车生产商和游客使用这种新的科技将是一个非常有效的方式来改善大气质量。

  Ø The government needs to improve the choice of public transport services available to travelers. For example, if sufficient sky trains and underground train systems were built and effectively maintained(维护) in our major cities, then traffic on the roads would be made dramatically(急剧地) reduced. Long-distance train and coach services should be made attractive and affordable(可承担的) alternatives to driving your own car for long journeys.

  段落大意:政府应该要增加游客对于公共交通的选择性。比如,轻轨和地铁在大城市应该被建立和维护,这样可以急剧减轻路面交通的压力。另外长途大巴服务也应该更加吸引人,价格更加可承受,这样人们就会减少开私家车。

  (2)交通工具的利弊比较

  Ø Aircrafts have a higher capacity/volume(容量), allowing greater numbers of passengers each flight and thereby giving the best possible values to the fuel used.

  段落大意:飞机的容量比较大,每一次飞行可以承载大量的乘客,因此能源利用率会比较高。

  Ø Although it is difficult to measure the actual impact of the noise on the people’s daily lives, its ability to increase the anxiety(焦虑) and levels of annoyance(恼人) has been confirmed

  段落大意:尽管很难测量噪音对人们日常生活的影响,但是经研究证明,飞机的噪音的确会增加人们的焦虑和恼人的程度。

  Ø By replacing the old engines with fuel-efficient ones, people can mitigate(减轻) the environmental impact caused by flying.

  段落大意:通过用节能引擎来代替旧的,人们可以减轻由飞行所产生的环境问题。

  (3)关于是否要用动物做实验的讨论

  Using animals for medicine tests will largely guarantee(确保) human being’s safety and will save a greater number of people’s lives who may contract(感染) some illness. In other words, if there were no animal-tested medicines, many people would die of disease.

  段落大意:用动物做实验在很大程度上会确保人们的安全,并且会拯救很多感染疾病的人的生命。换句话说,如果没有这些动物实验过的药品,很多人就会因为疾病而死亡。

  (4)关于是否要保护濒危动物的讨论

  The importance of protecting the extinct animals cannot be ignored.(忽视)Therefore, it is high time that government should shoulder(肩负) the responsibility to protect the animals from dying out. For example, more nature reserves should be set up to provide animals with habitat protection. In addition, scientists are encouraged to establish gene banks(基因库)in which genetic material can be well preserved.

  段落大意:保护濒危动物的重要性是不能被忽视的,因此政府需要承担起这个责任。比如,可以建立更多的自然保护区来给动物提供安全的栖息地。另外,政府也可以花钱建立基因库来储存动物的基因。

  (5)关于化石燃料和新能源的对比

  Replacing fossil fuels with alternative ones has profound(深远)的 meanings. On top of the list(首先), this can significantly reduce the pollution. Since fossil fuels are the major sources of carbon dioxide, replacing them could greatly control the emission(排放) of greenhouse gases. One good example can be seen in America, which tripled(三倍)their energy production from hydroelectricity power and pollution from electric system dropped by 80% to 90%.

  段落大意:用可替代能源来代替化石燃料有很多深远的影响。首先,这样可以减少污染,因为化石燃料是二氧化碳的主要来源,而使用可替代能源可以减少温室气体的排放。美国就是一个典型的例子,水力发电使得污染减少了80%到90%。

  通过阅读本文,相信各位考生已经大概明白环境类话题在雅思写作中的体现形式。朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家希望大家能把文章中的论点和词汇好好记忆一下,这样踏入考场才能做到胸有成竹!



关于我们 | 联系我们 | 网站地图 | 在线咨询 | 朗阁事记 | 隐私声明

厦门总校:厦门市思明区湖滨南路258号鸿翔大厦(高分热线:4008-766-190)

Copyright 2016-2018 xmlongre.com. All Rights Reserved. 闽ICP备17000117号-1