×
当前位置: 首页 > 雅思频道 > 真题回忆 >

2014年07月19日雅思考试阅读考题回顾

厦门雅思培训作者:朗阁海外考试中心时间:2014-08-07 18:30

摘要:朗阁海外考试研究中心 徐航 考试日期: 2014 年 7 月 19 日 Reading Passage 1 Title: 儿童与游戏(教育类) Question types: 句子填空题 判断题 流程图填空 文章内容回顾 介绍了游戏对学龄前儿童的影响,科学家对

 朗阁海外考试研究中心 徐航 

考试日期:

2014719

 

Reading Passage 1

Title:

儿童与游戏(教育类)

Question types:

句子填空题

判断题

流程图填空

文章内容回顾

介绍了游戏对学龄前儿童的影响,科学家对十几个家庭做深入的实验测试,根据实验研究结果来完善游戏设计。

部分答案分析:

句子填空题:

1. abilities

2. parents

3. siblings

4. experienced

判断题:

TRUE, NOT GIVEN, TRUE, FALSE

流程填空题:

firm

simplicity

full version

feedback

相关英文原文阅读

PLAY IS A SERIOUS BUSINESS

Does play help develop bigger, better brains? Bryant Furlow investigates

A.     Playing is a serious business. Children engrossed in a make-believe world, fox cubs play-fighting or kittens teaming a ball of string aren’t just having fun. Play may look like a carefree and exuberant way to pass the time before the hard work of adulthood comes along, but there’s much more to it than that. For a start, play can even cost animals their lives. Eighty percent of deaths among juvenile fur seals occur because playing pups fail to sport predators approaching. It is also extremely expensive in terms of energy. Playful young animals use around two or three per cent of energy cavorting, and in children that figure can be closer to fifteen per cent. ‘Even two or three per cent is huge,’ says John Byers of Idaho University. ‘You just don’t find animals wasting energy like that,’ he adds. There must be a reason.

B.     But if play is not simply a developmental hiccup, as biologists once thought, why did it evolve? The latest idea suggests that play has evolved to build big brains. In other words, playing makes you intelligent. Playfulness, it seems, is common only among mammals, although a few of the larger-brained birds also indulge. Animals at play often use unique signs – tail-wagging in dogs, for example – to indicate that activity superficially resembling adult behavior is not really in earnest. In popular explanation of play has been that it helps juveniles develop the skills they will need to hunt, mate and socialise as adults. Another has been that it allows young animals to get in shape for adult life by improving their respiratory endurance. Both these ideas have been questioned in recent years.

C.     Take the exercise theory. If play evolved to build muscle or as a kind of endurance training, then you would expect to see permanent benefits. But Byers points out that the benefits of increased exercise disappear rapidly after training stops, so many improvement in endurance resulting from juvenile play would be lost by adulthood. ‘If the function of play was to get into shape,’ says Byers, ‘the optimum time for playing would depend on when it was most advantageous for the young of a particular species to do so. But it doesn’t work like that.’ Across species, play tends to peak about halfway through the suckling stage and then decline.

D.     Then there’s the skills-training hypothesis. At first glance, playing animals do appear to be practicing the complex maneuvers they will need in adulthood. But a closer inspection reveals this interpretation as too simplistic. In one study, behavioral ecologist Tim Caro, from the University of California, looked at the predatory play of kittens and their predatory behavior when they reached adulthood. He found that the way the cats played had no significant effect on their hunting prowess in later life.

E.     Earlier this year, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada, reported that there is a strong positive link between brain size and playfulness among mammals in general. Comparing measurements for fifteen orders of mammals, he and his team found large brains (for a given body size) are linked to greater playfulness. The converse was also found to be true. Robert Barton of Durham University believes that, because large brains are more sensitive to developmental stimuli than smaller brains, they require more play to help mould them for adulthood. ‘I concluded it’s to do with learning, and with the importance of environmental data to the brain during development,’ he says.

F.     According to Byers, the timing of the playful stage in young animals provides an important clue to what’s going on. If you plot the amount of time juvenile devotes to play each day over the course of its development, you discover a pattern typically associated with a ‘sensitive period’ – a brief development window during which the brain can actually be modified in ways that are not possible earlier or later in life. Think of the relative ease with which young children – but not infants or adults – absorb language. Other researchers have found that play in cats, rats and mice is at its most intense just as this ‘window of opportunity” reaches its peak.

G.     ‘People have not paid enough attention to the amount of the brain activated by plays,’ says Marc Bekoff from Colorado University. Bekoff studied coyote pups at play and found that the kind of behaviour involved was markedly more variable and unpredictable than that of adults. Such behaviour activates many different parts of the brain, he reasons. Bekoff likens it to a behavioural kaleidoscope, with animals at play jumping rapidly between activities. ‘They use behaviour from a lot of different contexts – predation, aggression, reproduction,’ he says. ‘Their developing brain is getting all sorts of stimulation.’

H.     Not only is more of the brain involved in play that was suspected, but it also seems to activate higher cognitive processes. ‘There’s enormous cognitive involvement in play,’ says Bekoff. He points out that play often involves complex assessments of playmates, ideas of reciprocity and the use of specialised signals and rules. He believes that play creates a brain that has greater behavioural flexibility and improved potential for learning later in life. The idea is backed up by the work of Stephen Siviy of Gettysburg College. Siviy studied how bouts of play affected the brain’s levels of particular chemical associated with the stimulation and growth of nerve cells. He was surprised by the extent of the activation. ‘Play just lights everything up,’ he says. By allowing link-ups between brain areas that might not normally communicate with each other, play may enhance creativity.

I.       What might further experimentation suggest about the way children are raised in many societies today? We already know that rat pups denied the chance to play grow smaller brain components and fail to develop the ability to apply social rules when they interact with their peers. With schooling beginning earlier and becoming increasingly exam-orientated, play is likely to get even less of a look-in. Who knows what the result of that will be?

题型难度分析

第一篇难度较低,三个题型全部是顺序类题型。考生应感到比较轻松。

题型技巧分析

句子填空题:

此题型一般没有压力,是顺序题型,需要注意定位和空格周围单词在文章中的对应关系。

 

判断题:

顺序题型,注意定位词和考点词,注意区分FALSENOT GIVEN的辨析,FALSE表示文章中有提到信息,并且与题目信息对立,NOT GIVEN是文章没有提及题目所问信息,所以考点词的推测对区分FALSENOT GIVEN有很大影响。

 

流程填空题:

该题型的特点就是遵循顺序原则,一般有箭头指向,表明事件发展顺序。需要通过图中已给的信息词来文章定位。属于较为简单的小题型,定位比较集中。

剑桥雅思推荐原文练习

4 Test 2 Passage 3

 

Reading Passage 2

Title:

Ants Teach Ants生物类

Question types:

人名观点配对(NB

多选题(94

判断题

文章内容回顾

文章讨论了蚂蚁中是否存在leader。有四个科学家,各自讨论了自己的观点。一位科学家认为有,举例觅食过程中,蚂蚁会跟随领头的蚂蚁。其他三位科学家认为没有,列举了一些例子和研究结果。

部分答案分析:

人名观点配对的NB2次的是A

多选题:

关于动物的活动,文中提到哪四个

正确答案:A. 使用触角去沟通 C. 警告其他的同伴有捕猎者

D. 教小动物捕食   E

判断题:

一个NOT GIVEN, 一个NO, 两个YES

相关英文原文阅读

Communication

Ants communicate with each other using pheromones, sounds, and touch. [The use of pheromones as chemical signals is more developed in ants, such as the red harvester ant, than in other hymenopteran groups. Like other insects, ants perceive smells with their long, thin, and mobile antennae. The paired antennae provide information about the direction and intensity of scents. Since most ants live on the ground, they use the soil surface to leave pheromone trails that may be followed by other ants. In species that forage in groups, a forager that finds food marks a trail on the way back to the colony; this trail is followed by other ants, these ants then reinforce the trail when they head back with food to the colony. When the food source is exhausted, no new trails are marked by returning ants and the scent slowly dissipates. This behaviour helps ants deal with changes in their environment. For instance, when an established path to a food source is blocked by an obstacle, the foragers leave the path to explore new routes. If an ant is successful, it leaves a new trail marking the shortest route on its return. Successful trails are followed by more ants, reinforcing better routes and gradually identifying the best path.[65]

Ants use pheromones for more than just making trails. A crushed ant emits an alarm pheromone that sends nearby ants into an attack frenzy and attracts more ants from farther away. Several ant species even use "propaganda pheromones" to confuse enemy ants and make them fight among themselves.[66] Pheromones are produced by a wide range of structures including Dufour's glands, poison glands and glands on the hindgut, pygidium, rectum, sternum, and hind tibia.[62]Pheromones also are exchanged, mixed with food, and passed by trophallaxis, transferring information within the colony.[67]This allows other ants to detect what task group (e.g., foraging or nest maintenance) other colony members belong to.[68] In ant species with queen castes, when the dominant queen stops producing a specific pheromone, workers begin to raise new queens in the colony.[69]

Some ants produce sounds by stridulation, using the gaster segments and their mandibles. Sounds may be used to communicate with colony members or with other species.[70][71]

Learning

Many animals can learn behaviours by imitation, but ants may be the only group apart from mammals where interactive teaching has been observed. A knowledgeable forager of Temnothorax albipennis will lead a naive nest-mate to newly discovered food by the process of tandem running. The follower obtains knowledge through its leading tutor. The leader is acutely sensitive to the progress of the follower and slows down when the follower lags and speeds up when the follower gets too close.[87]

Controlled experiments with colonies of Cerapachys biroi suggest that an individual may choose nest roles based on her previous experience. An entire generation of identical workers was divided into two groups whose outcome in food foraging was controlled. One group was continually rewarded with prey, while it was made certain that the other failed. As a result, members of the successful group intensified their foraging attempts while the unsuccessful group ventured out fewer and fewer times. A month later, the successful foragers continued in their role while the others had moved to specialise in brood care.[88]

Navigation

Foraging ants travel distances of up to 200 metres (700 ft) from their nest [96] and scent trails allow them to find their way back even in the dark. In hot and arid regions, day-foraging ants face death by desiccation, so the ability to find the shortest route back to the nest reduces that risk. Diurnal desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis such as the Sahara desert ant navigate by keeping track of direction as well as distance travelled. Distances travelled are measured using an internal pedometer that keeps count of the steps taken [97] and also by evaluating the movement of objects in their visual field (optical flow).[98]Directions are measured using the position of the sun.[99] They integrate this information to find the shortest route back to their nest.[100] Like all ants, they can also make use of visual landmarks when available [101] as well as olfactory and tactile cues to navigate.[102][103] Some species of ant are able to use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation.[104] The compound eyes of ants have specialised cells that detect polarised light from the Sun, which is used to determine direction.[105][106] These polarization detectors are sensitive in the ultraviolet region of the light spectrum.[107] In some army ant species, a group of foragers who become separated from the main column sometimes may turn back on themselves and form a circular ant mill. The workers may then run around continuously until they die of exhaustion.[108]

题型难度分析

本篇文章的人名观点配对题有NB难度中等,多选题是近的高频小题型,这篇文章的定位不是很难。判断依然出现4题,定位在文章后几段。

题型技巧分析

人名理论配对题(无序性注意NB):

1. list中的理论进行关键词提炼

2. 从文章第一段看是否出现题目中的人名,如有,则看该人所说的话,再与后面的选项相比较。

3. 以此类推,看第二段是否出现人名,只看人所说的理论部分,与选项相比。

注:如果此人第一次的理论和选项不符,则看下一次该人出现时所说的理论。

多选题:

1. 常考的是52, 94选项很多。

2. 定位一般有集中性原则,即答案选项出现比较集中。

3. 注意总结除答案之外的其他错误选项和文章的关系:以未提和矛盾为主。

剑桥雅思推荐原文练习

7 TEST 3 Passage 1 Ant intelligence

 

Reading Passage 3

Title:

饮用水中含氟物质(社会类)

Question types:

单选题

判断题

句子配对题

文章内容回顾

某一个地方的水中含氟,说含氟的水对小孩的牙齿有好处,但也有人担心会带来坏处。后面探讨了政府是否应该在水中添加氟,有的认为应该,因为对大家的牙齿有好处。有的不同意,说摄入大量氟元素会对身体造成伤害。

部分答案回忆:

单选题:

水里面加氟的量取决于什么?

A. 取决于那个地方有多热(how hot),文中对应temperature一词

一些反对者反对的理由之一?

C. 公众的自主选择权被剥夺了

还有几题是选A, B, D

句子配对题:

第一道题中含有traditional science, 配对的句子中含有unbiased

第四道题中作者认为支持加氟的人,配对的是没有足够证据的选项

题型难度分析

单选题有顺序原则。判断题有顺序原则。句子配对是近比较高频的小题型,由于练习不多容易导致不熟练,特别是这篇选项较多。总体来说,本篇题型设置难度不小。

题型技巧分析

单选题:

由题干和4个选项构成,基本题干可以用来定位,如果题干无法准确定位,从选项反推即可。正确选项一般是对文章的改写,注意同义转换,错误的选项有的是干扰项,非常容易误选,也有的是文章未提及的内容,应排除。

单选题难度不大,但错误率高,一般出2-5题。

 

句子配对题:

1. 特点是题目给出句子的前半段,选项里是句子的后半段。

2. 选项一般都会出很多,且整句连起来比较长。

3. 有干扰项

4. 有时会乱序

剑桥雅思推荐原文练习

7 Test 1 Passage 2

考试趋势分析和备考指导:

1. 从话题来看,下一场考试可能以社会类、医疗健康类、生物环境类为主。

2. 暑期阶段题型已经趋于稳定:判断题、单选题、配对题必须准备好,而句子配对题、多选题、简答题是近期常考的小题型。

姓名: 联系方式:
课程: 投送地址:
 


关于我们 | 联系我们 | 网站地图 | 在线咨询 | 朗阁事记 | 隐私声明

厦门总校:厦门市思明区湖滨南路258号鸿翔大厦(高分热线:4008-766-190)

版权所有:厦门市思明区朗阁外语培训中心

Copyright 2016-2018 xmlongre.com. All Rights Reserved. 闽ICP备17000117号-1