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2014年6月21日雅思阅读考题回顾

厦门雅思培训作者:朗阁海外考试中心时间:2014-07-24 12:27

摘要:朗阁海外考试研究中心 宋媛婧 Reading Passage 1 Title: New Zealand Forestry Question types: TRUE / FALSE / NOT GIVEN Short Answer Questions 文章内容回顾 本篇主要讲述新西兰木材产业的发展与变化。起初新西

 朗阁海外考试研究中心 宋媛婧 

Reading Passage 1

Title:

New Zealand Forestry

Question types:

TRUE / FALSE / NOT GIVEN

Short Answer Questions

文章内容回顾

本篇主要讲述新西兰木材产业的发展与变化。起初新西兰木材出口主要依赖于原始森林,后由于过度砍伐,导致要靠种植树木来维持出口。并且产业前景也不够明朗,国内需要不多,国外存在竞争。

相关英文原文阅读

Milling of New Zealand's extensive native forests was one of the earliest industries in the European settlement of the country. The long, straight hardwood from the kauri was ideal for ship masts and spars. As the new colony was established, timber was the most common building material, and vast areas of native forest were cleared. Rimu, tōtara, matai, and miro were the favoured timbers. The Monterey Pine, Pinus radiata was introduced to New Zealand in the 1850s. It thrived in the conditions, reaching maturity in 28 years, much faster than in its native California. It was found to grow well in the infertile acidic soil of the volcanic plateau, where attempts at agriculture had failed. Thomas William Adams experimented with P. radiata and other trees in Canterbury from the 1870s, and promoted the early forestry industry. The Government initiated planting of exotic forests in 1899 at Whakarewarewa, near Rotorua. This was to address growing timber shortages as slow-growing native forests were exhausted. In the 1930s, vast areas of land were planted in pinus ratiata by relief workers. The largest tract was the 188,000-hectare Kāingaroa forest, the largest plantation forest in the world. As the major forests matured, processing industries such as the Kinleith Mill at Tokoroa and the Tasman Mill at Kawerau were established.

 

Plantation forests of various sizes can now be found in all regions of New Zealand except Central Otago and Fiordland. In 2006 their total area was 1.8 million hectares, with 89% in Pinus radiata and 5% in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Log harvesting in 2006 was 18.8 million m3, down from 22.5 million m3 in 2003. This is projected to rise as high as 30 million m3 as newer forests mature. The value of all forestry exports (logs, chips, sawn timber, panels and paper products) for the year ended 31 March 2006 was $NZ 3.62 billion. This is projected to rise to $4.65 billion by 2011. Australia accounts for just over 25% of export value, mostly paper products, followed by Japan, South Korea, China and the United States.[4] Within the New Zealand economy, forestry accounts for approximately 4% of national GDP. On the global stage, the New Zealand forestry industry is a relatively small contributor in terms of production, accounting for 1% of global wood supply for industrial purposes.

题型难度分析

新题,且由两种有序题型构成,难度不大。

题型技巧分析

是非无判断题几乎是每次阅读必考的题型,且题量基本都在14题左右。所以对于这一常考题型,同学们一定要熟知其解题技巧。特别要区分NoNot Given在判断标准上的差异。而对于一些考题中经常出现的经典考点,我们也要能够识别。

1. 数字(但年份一般不作为考点)

2. 比较(常见答案为NOT GIVEN

3. 增加&减少(increase / rise / grow / climb / accelerate decrease / decline / reduce / crash

4. 超过(over / more than / exceed / excess

5. 绝对化(all / fully / must / only / unique / never

6. 逻辑关系

剑桥雅思推荐原文练习

7 Test 3 Passage 3 欧洲森林保护

 

 

Reading Passage 2

Title:

面部复原技术

Question types:

Multiple ChoicesN3

TRUE / FALSE / NOT GIVEN

Short Answer Questions

文章内容回顾

介绍考古学家一开始对于骨头考古的不加重视以及因为技术的发展开始从事骨头复原工作。然后介绍由于各种因素导致复原图像的差别和意外,以及复原工作后续的技术发展。

相关英文原文阅读

Because a standard method for creating three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions has not been widely agreed upon, multiple methods and techniques are used. The process detailed below reflects the method presented by Taylor and Angel from their chapter in Craniofacial Identification in Forensic Medicine, pgs 177-185.[8] This method assumes that the sex, age, and race of the remains to undergo facial reconstruction have already been determined through traditional forensic anthropological techniques.

 

The skull is the basis of facial reconstruction; however, other physical remains that are sometimes available often prove to be valuable. Occasionally, remnants of soft tissue are found on a set of remains. Through close inspection, the forensic artist can easily approximate the thickness of the soft tissue over the remaining areas of the skull based on the presence of these tissues. This eliminates one of the most difficult aspects of reconstruction, the estimation of tissue thickness. Additionally, any other bodily or physical evidence found in association with remains (e.g. jewelry, hair, glasses, etc.) are vital to the final stages of reconstruction because they directly reflect the appearance of the individual in question.

 

Most commonly, however, only the bony skull and minimal or no other soft tissues are present on the remains presented to forensic artists. In this case, a thorough examination of the skull is completed. This examination focuses on, but is not limited to, the identification of any bony pathologies or unusual landmarks, ruggedness of muscle attachments, profile of the mandible, symmetry of the nasal bones, dentition, and wear of the occlusal surfaces. All of these features have an effect on the appearance of an individual's face.

 

Once the examination is complete, the skull is cleaned and any damaged or fragmented areas are repaired with wax. The mandible is then reattached, again with wax, according to the alignment of teeth, or, if no teeth are present, by averaging the vertical dimensions between the mandible and maxilla. Undercuts (like the nasal openings) are filled in with modeling clay and prosthetic eyes are inserted into the orbits centered between the superior and inferior orbital rims. At this point, a plaster cast of the skull is prepared. Extensive detail of the preparation of such a cast is presented in the article from which these methods are presented.

 

After the cast is set, colored plastics or the colored ends of safety matches are attached at twenty-one specific "landmark" areas that correspond to the reference data. These sites represent the average facial tissue thickness for persons of the same sex, race, and age as that of the remains. From this point on, all features are added using modeling clay.

 

First, the facial muscles are layered onto the cast in the following order: temporalis, masseter, buccinator and occipito-frontals, and finally the soft tissues of the neck. Next, the nose and lips are reconstructed before any of the other muscles are formed. The lips are approximately as wide as the interpupillary distance. However, this distance varies significantly with age, sex, race, and occlusion. The nose is one of the most difficult facial features to reconstruct because the underlying bone is limited and the possibility of variation is expansive. The nasal profile is constructed by first measuring the width of the nasal aperture and the nasal spine. Using a calculation of three times the length of the spine plus the depth of tissue marker number five will yield the approximate nose length. Next, the pitch of the nose is determined by examining the direction of the nasal spine-down, flat, or up. A block of clay that is the proper length is then placed on the nasal spine and the remaining nasal tissue is filled in using tissue markers two and three as a guide for the bridge of the nose. The alae are created by first marking a point five millimeters below the bottom of the nasal aperture. After the main part of the nose is constructed, the alae are created as small egg-shaped balls of clay, that are five millimeters in diameter at the widest point, these are positioned on the sides of the nose corresponding with the mark made previously. The alae are then blended to the nose and the overall structure of the nose is rounded out and shaped appropriately.

 

The muscles of facial expression and the soft tissue around the eyes are added next. Additional measurements are made according to race (especially for those with eye folds characteristic of Asian descent) during this stage. Next, tissues are built up to within one millimeter of the tissue thickness markers and the ears (noted as being extremely complicated to reproduce) are added. Finally, the face is "fleshed," meaning clay is added until the tissue thickness markers are covered, and any specific characterization is added (for example, hair, wrinkles in the skin, noted racial traits, glasses, etc.). The skull of Mozart was the basis of his facial reconstruction from anthropological data. The bust was unveiled at the "Salon du Son", Paris, in 1991.

题型难度分析

旧题,也是由常考题型构成,研究过机经的同学可能会看到过原文,难度总体不大。

题型技巧分析

多选题在雅思阅读的所有题型中并不常考。但相对单选题而言,多选题是比较简单的。因为多选题涉及到的都是细节类的题型,且答案相对比较集中,同学们在解题时需要注意通过题干中的关键词进行段落大方向的定位,再在定位范围中有效利用SCANNING的能力进行答案的搜寻和同义转换。多选题的选项之间是相对没有干扰的,所以做多选题就不需要像单选题那么纠结了。

剑桥雅思推荐原文练习

4 Test 4 Passage 2 The Nature and Aims of Archaeology

 

 

Reading Passage 3

Title:

对大脑衰退和保持活性的研究

Question types:

Multiple Choice(单选)

Multiple ChoicesN3

Matching人名与理论

Multiple Choice选文章适合的标题

文章内容回顾

本文研究了大脑的衰退以及如何保持大脑健康的方法。文中介绍了多种可以使大脑保持活性的方法,如锻炼,教育,生活态度,性格,处理压力的方式等。

相关英文原文阅读

Adrenoleukodystrophy (also known as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, ALD, X-ALD, adrenomyeloneuropathy, AMN, Siemerling–Creutzfeldt disease or bronze Schilder disease) is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta oxidation which results in the accumulation of very-long chain fatty acids in tissues throughout the body. The most severely affected tissues are the myelin in the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex and the Leydig cells in the testes. Clinically, ALD is a heterogenous disorder, presenting with several distinct phenotypes, and no clear pattern of genotype-phenotype correlation. As an X-linked disorder, ALD presents most commonly in males, however approximately 50% of heterozygote females show some symptoms later in life. Approximately two-thirds of ALD patients will present with the childhood cerebral form of the disease, which is the most severe form. It is characterized by normal development in early childhood, followed by rapid degeneration to a vegetative state. The other forms of ALD vary in terms of onset and clinical severity, ranging from adrenal insufficiency to progressive paraparesis in early adulthood (this form of the disease is typically known as adrenomyeloneuropathy).

ALD is caused by mutations in ABCD1, a gene located on the X chromosome that codes for ALD, a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. The exact mechanism of the pathogenesis of the various forms of ALD is not known. Biochemically, individuals with ALD show very high levels of unbranched, saturated, very long chain fatty acids, particularly cerotic acid (26:0). The level of cerotic acid in plasma does not correlate with clinical presentation. Treatment options for ALD are limited. Dietary treatment is with Lorenzo's oil. For the childhood cerebral form, stem cell transplant and gene therapy are options if the disease is detected early in the clinical course. Adrenal insufficiency in ALD patients can be successfully treated. ALD is the most common peroxisomal inborn error of metabolism, with an incidence estimated between 1:20,000 and 1:50,000. It does not have a significantly higher incidence in any specific ethnic groups.

题型难度分析

新题,但剑桥系列中有非常类似的文章,叙述结构脉络也比较清晰,难度不大。

题型技巧分析

Matching(人名&观点)在近期的雅思阅读考试中出现的次数比较多。做这一题型,首先要明确它的题干是有序还是无序的(人名出现在题干中一般为有序)。其次要注意解题的顺序,若是有序型的,则可按人名在文中出现顺序解题,若是无序型的,按人名出现次数从少到多解题。在解题时,当定位到某一人名后,要特别留意此人所说的话(即引号中的内容),而这一人名后附加的一长串头衔,则可省略不读。

剑桥雅思推荐原文练习

6 Test 2 Passage 2 Greying population stays in the pink

考试趋势分析和备考指导:

1. 从文章话题来看,考察到的都是比较常规的话题,经济发展类,考古类,生活健康类,考生们对于这些话题可以多关注一下,这是2014年考试的主流话题。

2. 三篇文章两新一旧,考生应多关注考题回顾,注意重复率较高的话题文章。

3. 考试题型并没有太大新意,仍然保持热门类题型居多,考生应多熟悉这些热门题型的解题方法和技巧,在考场上灵活运用。

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