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解析雅思听力多选题

厦门朗阁培训中心朗阁时间:2014-08-18 17:27

摘要:朗阁海外考试研究中心 郭辉强 由于在官方公布的真题中出现的频率低、数量少、分布零散,以至于很多考生在备考雅思听力的时候中,多选题这一题型没有引起考生足够的重视。但多选题的难度却是同学们不能忽视的。作为

 朗阁海外考试研究中心 郭辉强

由于在官方公布的真题中出现的频率低、数量少、分布零散,以至于很多考生在备考雅思听力的时候中,多选题这一题型没有引起考生足够的重视。但多选题的难度却是同学们不能忽视的。作为考察同义替换、规避陷阱能力的题型,题目信息量大和信息的干扰性强是它的两大特点。因此这种题型也成为雅思听力的隐形杀手。所以朗阁海外考试研究中心的借此机会对雅思听力的多选题出题思路和应对技巧进行深入的剖析(文中的例子均来自今年二月出版的雅思官方指南,简称OG),帮助同学们攻克这种题型。

一、特点分析

 选项的干扰性
五选二和七选三是多选题常见的两种形式。选项繁多无疑是同学们的障碍,但是多选题的难度不仅仅局限于此。在雅思官方指南中多选题无论是正确选项还是干扰选项都会在录音中被提及。这样的特点让考生无法轻易地只根据听到的内容进行简单的勾选,而是要排除错误选项。我们来看OGTest2Section2的多选题体会一下。下文例子中A-E均在原文中出现(已用黑体字标出),这两道题并未出现太多的同义替换,总体难度不大,但是稍不注意就会掉进事先设置好的陷阱,所以同学们在做题时千万不能掉以轻心。

Question21 and 22
Choose Two letters, A-E
Which Two subjects did Martina like best before going to university?
A Art
B English
C French
D History
E Science

原文:
Martina: Well it’s great-apart from the studying of course.
George:Yeah-me too! What are you doing? I seem to remember that you were going to do Art.That was your best subject, wasn’t it?
Martina:No- not really- I just liked the teacher.He was French and had an amazing accent.My favorite subject was History.But I couldn’t see what career that would give me.
George: Ah. Right.So what did you choose?
Martina:Well I found it really difficult to decide. I was really good at Science but I must admit I never really enjoyed studying it.So,in the end I decide to opt for English which was my second favorite subject and I thought it would be more useful to me than studying anything else.So-that’s what I’m doing. Um-how are you finding university?

 答案的改写性与概括性
改写性,顾名思义就是我们经常提到的同义替换,即答案通常不会使用选项的原词,而往往会进行同义替换。这也是难度较大的多选题惯用的伎俩。在OG Test6Section4中这种特点体现得淋漓尽致。该题的正确选项为C和E。C选项中的form relationship等同于developing friendships and professional networks。选项把friendship和network概括成relationship。这也体现了多选题的另一个特点,正确选项的概括性。答案信息的提供,往往是对原文信息进行加工处理,通常以言简意赅的语言体现出来。这就需要同学们具备一定的概括能力。再例如E选项也同样体现了这样的出题规律。文中的两句话被缩减成一句简短的话,reliably是对this information comes from access more trustworthy than local media的概括,而current affairs则是对latest news-to be up-to-date with local and global events的高度浓缩。这样的例子在剑桥真题1-9中比比皆是。

Question 35and 36
Choose Two letters,A- E
Which does the speaker believe are TWO real benefits of online social networking?
A people can gain higher self-esteem
B people can access useful medical information
C people can form relationships more quickly
D people can improve academic performance
E people can be reliably informed about current affairs

原文:
Let’s start with the benefits.Without question,online social networking allows us to pass on the latest news-to be up-to-date with local and global events-and for many,this information comes from source more trustworthy than local media.So,this is one clear point in favor of online social networking.I know that is also being used by students-as a means of increasing their chances of success- in the way that lecture notes can be shared and ideas discussed,I think,personally speaking,that we need some further research before we can definitely say whether it helps or not.There’s also been a great increase in the number of networking sites devoted to sharing advice on health issues but there are as yet no studies to prove the reliability of that advice, Now,what we do have clear evidence for is that people are developing friendships and professional networks in a way that wasn’t possible before-that process is faster.

二、多选题解题步骤

 审题——求同存异
审题可谓是做雅思题目的关键步骤,多选题尤其如此。那么多选题我们又要注意哪些方面呢?

题干:
朗阁海外考试研究中心的认为首当其冲的应该是关注题干的限定信息。例如上文的例子Which Two subject did Martina like best before going to university?(黑体字既是限定信息),对正确答案进行了范围的缩小,如果审题时没有关注到这个信息,做题时势必云里雾里。尽管文中对话的中心是围绕女生所选的专业,但是专业的信息并不是这题的答案。同学们很容易因此而受干扰。在听题时一定要牢记题目所需信息,不能因为信息一多而自乱阵脚。这是审题的关键之处。

选项:
选项的解读也是至关重要的,在烦乱的信息中,我们要求同存异。即我们的审题重点是合并类似的选项,并且重点关注选项间相异的部分,因为出题点往往会落在相异的部分。如OG Test6 Section4中的多选题。选项A和C的都出现了Social这个单词,但是所搭配的内容是不一样的。这就需要我们在听录音时仔细区别skills和circle, 将其划出来。而答案句往往隐藏在相似的选项当中。一个词概括就是求同存异。

Question 39 and 40
Choose Two letters A-E
Which Two claims are made by Robin Dunbar about social networking sites?
A They are not helpful for developing certain social skills
B They cannot fully reveal a person’s real character
C They are not a good starting point for building new relationships
D They do not encourage people to widen their social circle
E They will not retain their popularity with the young generation

 听题——见招拆招
审题结束之后,了解了多选题的出题规律和选项、题干的注意事项,接下来我们要做的就是见招拆招了。由于题目信息量大的缘故,所以我们在审题时针对性要强,有的放矢才能提高审题的效率。对于题干我们要划出限定信息,把题目中需要的信息的条件牢记在心。而对于选项则是“合并同类项,注意差别”。由于大部分多选题几乎每个选项都会提到,所以本质上我们是在做一道判断题,对于每个被提到的答案我们都要把题干中的限定信息作为衡量的标准,在听时迅速做出判断,同时对于选项的单词在原文重现的情况要多加小心,因为很可能是陷阱。

三、总结

本文中,我们通过对OG的深度解读,把握了雅思听力多选题的考试规律,并且从规律本身出发总结了审题的要点和听题的诀窍。后朗阁海外考试研究中心的用几句话来概括一下多选题的解题要点,让同学们轻松把握多选题。
审题(1)题干——划出限定信息。
(2)选项——合并同类项,注意差别。
听题(1)通过限定信息判断每个选项是否符合题意。
(2)注意选项的同义替换,原文重现需谨慎。

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