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雅思听力中and的应用

厦门朗阁培训中心朗阁时间:2015-08-05 17:01

摘要:PART 1 重要性 并列和顺接 第一个印入我们眼帘的就是and。这个词语我们在刚接触到英语的时候我们就认识了。and主要是表并列和顺接关系。这个词语广泛用于各种英语的句子中。 如:并列:... However, after the axe had been chipped into shape, they needed water and

     PART 1 — 重要性

并列和顺接
第一个印入我们眼帘的就是and。这个词语我们在刚接触到英语的时候我们就认识了。and主要是表并列和顺接关系。这个词语广泛用于各种英语的句子中。
如:并列:... However, after the axe had been chipped into shape, they needed water and sand for grinding and polishing ...(剑6 Test3 Section4后面缩写为:6-3-4)
顺接:... You pay a £250 joining fee and then it's £450 ... (6-1-1)
两个意思之间的连接必须用and;句子之间的顺接也可以用and;某些表示条件、结果甚至是某些因果都可以用and。

同义互换

雅思重要的一个现象就是同意互换(paraphrase),尤其在听力过程中,为了增加难度许多词语并不会出现原词。那么我们来看看and会如何做同意互换呢。
1. It is possible to hire _______ and _______.
Audio Scripts: And you can hire laptops ... as well as printers ... (6-1-3)
2. Cardboard, coloured pens and a _______.
Audio Scripts: ... and coloured each one in using different colours, then you thread a piece of string ... So we'd need some string as well. (4-4-3)
当然and还可以转换为together with, not only ... but also ...等等,但是无论怎么互换后换到的词语都比and复杂,这个实际上变相的降低了听力的难度,因此在许多情况下,当试卷上出现and时,在听力中并不会做互换。换句话说,如果在试卷上看到了and,并且要填写的答案在and周围的话,我们就可以刻意去听and,这样答案也就出来了。
E.G.: Float dropped into ocean and _______by satellite.
Audio Scripts: Each of the floats is dropped in the ocean ... and activated from a satellite. (7-3-3)
通过这个题目我们可以注意到,我们在填对这个答案的时候几乎都可以不用知道float, satellite甚至是答案activated的意思,只需要将and后面的动词写下来就可以了。这个大大增加了and这个词语的重要性。
E.G.: Swimming aids: fins and ______.
Audio Scripts: ... sharks are very quick swimmers. This is made possible by their fins, one set at the side ..., and the tail also help the shark move forward quickly. (4-4-4)
我们发现在fins的后面加了一句解释的话,在听力过程中往往会导致听漏,但是后面出现的and就是非常好的而定位点。

 PART 2 — 两大难点

 语音难点

那么既然and这么重要,在我们听力中会有什么问题呢?首先,提醒考生们要注意,and这个词语本身并不是说话的重点,因此在说话的过程中,这个词语并不会完全读成/?nd/而会弱化成/?nd/;其次,由于and是爆破音/d/结尾,当后面的单词由辅音开头的时候还会继续爆破,此时and仅仅读作/?n/;再次and是元音开头,若前面一个单词是辅音结尾,还会产生连读,更加增加了这个词被听出来的情况。
E.G.: Highlights: music and ______.
Audio Scripts: ... but the best part is the music and lighting. (4-3-2)
这边的and弱化了,但是还是能听出在music后面有一个/?n/。
E.G.: ... because it had water, raw materials and fuels such as ______ and ______.
Audio Scripts: The water and the availability of raw materials ... and also the abundance of local fuels, like coal and firewood, ... (4-1-2)
此题可以通过fuels来定位,同时like和such as做同义词互换,也就是正确答案就是后面的并列关系的名词,但是此题的难点就是coal and firewood被读作/k?ul?n fаi?wud/,这样就导致无法听出正确答案了。

速记难点

当and连接的2个词语都要写出来的时候,不仅语音上面有难度,在速记上的要求也提高了。
E.G.: Site One: Problems with _______ and _______.
Audio Scripts: Site One was unpopular because of traffic and parking problems. (4-3-4)
New technology allowed the production of goods made of ______ and ______.
Audio Scripts: The technology they introduced meant that metal and leather goods were produced there for the first time. (6-1-4)
这两个例子都能看出来通过and定位很容易能找到答案,但是需要写的两个词语出现比较快,而且由于and的弱化,以及句子中的倒置,更加增加了填写的难度。

 PART 3 — 注意事项

虽然and本身读音为/?nd/,在句子中弱化的读音却是/?n/不会由于爆破而读成/?n/,因此我们在听力过程中不要听错。
E.G. Video Presentation: Go to _______
Audio Script: ... Now, after the break we'll be moving a different location for a video presentation ... and there you will be shown a video ... called Safety at Work.
此题的答案是Safety at Work这个地方读作/seifti ? w?:k/。这边的答案一定要注意不是safety and work/seifti ?n w?:k/,虽然两个读音极像。

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